# STRUCTURAL

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

## GSE General Structural Engineering Software

## GSE SOFTWARE

**G**ENERAL **S**TRUCTURAL **E**NGINEERING

This engineering software solution is used worldwide by several notable international companies in production work for building innovative structures. The GSE software is an advanced structural program based on more than 32 years of Research and Development.

## ADVANCED STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

The advanced structural analysis of the GSE software allows the user to achieve specialized analyses crucial to any projects related to the construction industry.

- FEA Finite Elements Analysis
- Static Analysis
- Linear and Nonlinear Analysis
- P-Delta Analysis
- Natural Frequency Analysis
- Static Equivalent
- Seismic and Dynamic Analysis
- Time-History Analysis
- Modal Analysis
- Spatial Objects and Spatial Loads

- Buckling Analysis
- Spectral Analysis
- Advanced Section Stress
- Torsion and Warping
- Built Up Sections
- Catenary Cables
- Diaphragm Analysis
- Notional Horizontal Loads
- Loads and Load Combinations
- Direct Analysis Method (DAM)

It is important to note that the torsional stiffness of an open section is function of the warping end conditions as well as the location of the torsional load. Thus, the distribution of the forces in the structure having members resisting torsion may differ whether this option is enabled or disabled. A subdivided continuous member needs to be specified as a physical member to get the continuity effect of warping along the member.

In addition to shear stresses, some members carry torque by axial stresses. This is called warping torsion. This happens when the cross-section wants to warp, i.e., displace axially, but is prevented from doing so during twisting of the beam. In other words, the section tends to resist torsion by out of plane bending of the flanges.

•Seismic response spectrum, seismic time-history and dynamic time-history analysis

•Customized response spectrums and accelerograms

•Fully customizable analysis parameters

•Maximal response using CQC and SRSS methods

•Automated or user defined damping

•Graphical display of response spectrums and accelerograms

•User defined incidence angle of seismic loads and vertical components

•Customized analysis and output time steps

•Time refined results can be provided for selected parts of the models

•Automated or custom determination of the signs of deformations provided by the maximum response methods

•Additional masses can be added to the model by way of static loads

•Seismic loads (spectrum or accelerogram) and dynamic loads (sinusoidal, general load functions and random load functions)

•Multiple seismic and dynamic loads can be combined together in a single analysis

•Base shear calibration according to the selected building code

•Possibility to define several seismic loads and account for eccentricities between the center of stiffness and the center of mass

•Graphical display of the center of stiffness and the center of mass and seismic forces at floors

•Account for accidental eccentricities

•Account for the I, F and R coefficients of the NBCC and IBC code in spectral and time-history analysis

### SEISMIC AND DYNAMIC ANALYSIS

### LOADS and

LOAD COMBINATIONS

•Loading for joints, members including concentrated, uniform, trapezoidal and thermal loads

•Pressure or concentrated floor loads with two-way, one-way and truss distribution using triangular or quadrilateral surfaces

•Pressure or concentrated loads on finite element plates

•Gravity loads in any global direction calculated by the program

•Imposed displacements at any joint

•User defined load combinations

PHYSICAL MEMBER LOADS

The user can apply uniform, concentrated and variable loads to physical members (continuous sequence of members).

•Custom section libraries

•Non-standard sections (over 30 shapes available)

•Truss and pre-tensioned cable sections

•User defined section properties

•Composite sections are available

GEOMETRIC CALCULATOR

•Wizard based geometry generation

•Large number of pre-defined frames

•Over 30 pre-defined trusses

•Circular and parabolic arches

•Cylinders and cones composed of beams and/or plates

### EXTENSIVE PROFILE TYPES AND LIBRARIES

### CATENARY CABLES

ANALYSIS

A cable has no bending, shear, compression or torsion stiffness. Due to this fact, the fixities at the ends are ignored; the cable is always treated as member acting in tension only. In the interface of the GSE, the user can create a catenary cable by associating a cable type section to a member.

*Requires the advanced analysis application.

Concentrated, pressure and wind loads may be applied to spatial objects. The figures below shows a spatial object loaded vertically and horizontally attached to a cantilever column. Also, it shows the deformations and biaxial moments induced by the loads transferred by the spatial object.

*Requires the advanced analysis application.

### SPATIAL OBJECTS AND SPATIAL LOADS

### DIRECT ANALYSIS

METHOD (DAM)

The options for the Stability Design Method are Direct Analysis Method (DAM) and Effective Length Method (kL).

## INTUITIVE MODELING FEATURES

•Linear or circular lines of constructions for model creations

•Automated commands for model creation such as move, rotate, extrude, copy, attach, subdivide and others

•Models can be edited either graphically or by means of spreadsheets

•Element can be created in batch or one by one

•Elements of the models can be selected either graphically or according to a set of criterions

•Persistent groups of selected objects can be created and edited graphically or by means of spreadsheets

•Definition of physical members

•Selection and edition of physical members

•Definition of loading surfaces

•Multiple edition grids with user defined spacing, angles and labels

•Powerful edition and automatic generation tools

•Members can be subdivided in any number of equal segments or at specific positions

•Elements of the structure can be renumbered according to several criterions

•Element attributes can be set graphically or by means of spreadsheets (sections, analysis parameters, rotation angles, etc.)

•Element attributes can be edited in batch or element by element

•Loads can be edited graphically or by means of spreadsheets

•Contour lines for finite element plates with customized bounds

•Wizard based geometry generation

•A large number of pre-defined frames

•Circular and parabolic arches

•Cylinders and cones composed of beams and/or plates

•Physical elements concept to group different elements

•Surfaces can be used for load transfer and self-weight calculation

•Surfaces can be used to simulate diaphragm effects

### PRODUCTIVE MESH GENERATION

These functionalities are specifically related to the refinement area, the opening, the linear constraint and the punctual constraint. All detail elements added to the GSE model will be automatically connected to the finite element mesh.

The mesh perimeter will also connect any elements already in the model to the mesh perimeter automatically if they are in the plane of the mesh contour.

### DISPLAY FEATURES

The GSE program manages to scale the size of the various pictures including toolbar buttons in order to make the user interface easy to use on every monitor, even on very high resolution monitors.

•3D solid display of all section shapes

•Ultra-fast 3D visualization in wire frame or solid modes

•Customized display of all graphical objects

•Partial model visualization

•Results can be displayed on screen for the whole or a part of the structure

•Results can be displayed for each element separately by means of graphics and numerical results spreadsheets

•Results can be displayed for a set of elements by means of numerical results spreadsheets

•Graphical display of seismic and dynamic analysis results

•Model size limited only to the physical capacity of the computer

### OBJECTS TRANSPARENCY

The level of transparency may be customized for each type of object from the Display Options command.

### FILES IMPORT

The integration of IFC in the GSE program enables importation of models from a large number of architectural and structural software.

IFC (Industry Foundation Classes) is an open and neutral data format allowing the definition of related classes to all construction objects. It is dedicated to the building sector and aims to software interoperability (all editors, all applications).

IFC is the most widely used protocol for information exchange and sharing between different platforms of BIM (Building Information Modeling).

### DATA EXCHANGE

•The SDNF (Steel Detailing Neutral File) interface exports beams, columns and braces to SDNF compatible detailing software

•The KISS (Keep It Simple Steel) interface exports beams, columns and braces to KISS compatible estimation softwares

•IFC-Architecture interface for importing models from Revit or other IFC compliant programs.

•If required, members subdivision and account for physical elements will be carried out automatically

•The solid view of the structure may also be exported when exporting to AutoCAD

### COMPREHENSIVE REPORTS PROVIDED

•Input data and results may be printed for the whole structure or partial structures using a graphical selection or a range of elements

•Customized list of input data and results to be printed

•Reports are available in several formats including SAFI™ reports, Microsoft Excel worksheets, Microsoft Access databases and ASCII text files

•All graphics can be printed or copied to the clipboard for use in external programs

### UNIT SYSTEMS

Reports are printed according to any unit system.

## CONCRETE DESIGN

• Second order effects may be accounted for according to the simplified method of the design codes.

• Effects of lateral drift and internal member deformations may be considered together or independently.

• The program allows to design continuous members.

• Design of bending, shear, torsion and combined axial forces and bending.

• The program calculates all required reinforcement and development lengths.

• The program can design longitudinal reinforcement, stirrups and column rein forcement for common concrete section shapes.

Including SLAB ENGINEERING.

The reinforced concrete slab design assistant allows the user to quickly generate the design strips of a concrete slab. The assistant generates column strips and middle strips that are adapted to the geometries of the bidirectional span of the slab. This assistant is directly linked to the automated mesh generation functionalities, allowing us to use the geometrical elements such as supports, walls and openings for both the finite elements model and the design strips generation.

## SLAB ENGINEERING

Directly linked to the automated functionalities of the line of integration using finite elements, this application allows the user to operate in a specialized environment in order to perform mesh generation. SLAB ENGINEERING simultaneously defines model geometric elements such as supports, walls and openings.

Slab Engineering supports a complete and efficient solution for slab design. Without a doubt, this new technological breakthrough will help increasing productivity and success in various design projects.

### TECHNICAL

SPECIFICATIONS

•The program can design a whole or only a part of the structure.

•Supports the American ACI-318 code, the Canadian CSA-A23.3 and CSA-S6 codes, the Egyptian code ECCS 203.

•Libraries for standard American, Canadian or Egyptian reinforcement bars.

•It also allows to calculate the resistance of the elements once the reinforcement is known, which allows to improve the design of a structure or to evaluate the resistance of an existing one.

•Reinforcement bars and stirrups, applied loads, resistance curves and interaction diagrams are displayed graphically.

•Verification of bending, shear, torsion and combined axial forces and bending.

•Calculated reinforcement can be further edited and additional resistance verification calculations can be performed on the whole or selected parts of the structure. This cyclic design method allows to closely match practical user requirements without the need of tedious hand calculations.

•Reinforcement layouts, resistance curves and interaction diagrams are displayed graphically.

•The program considers longitudinal reinforcement and bent bars for bending resistance.

•The program considers straight or inclined stirrups and bent bars for shear and torsion resistance.

•The program considers column reinforcement for combined axial and bending loads.

### CONCRETE

VERIFICATION

The CONCRETE CALCULATOR™ is a simple and powerful tool which allows to analyze and design reinforced concrete beams, slabs and columns cross sections.

•Analysis and design of a single concrete sections or multiple sections.

•The program supports the American ACI-318-02 code, the Canadian CSA-A23.3-04 code, the Egyptian design code ECCS 203-2001 and the Canadian bridge design code CSA-S6.

•Large number of solved problems and references are available.

•The FOOTING CALCULATOR allows to perform the design of four different types of footings. Each type of footing can be designed with a certain type of column.

-Isolated square footing: reinforced concrete column or steel column

-Isolated rectangular footing: reinforced concrete column or steel column

-Strip footing: reinforced concrete wall

-Combined footing: reinforced concrete column or steel column

•This Engineering Calculator supports the American ACI-318-02 code, the Canadian CAN/CSA-A23.3-01 code, the Egyptian code ECCS 203-2001.

### ENGINEERING CALCULATORS

FOOTING CALCULATOR™

## STEEL DESIGN

• Calculation of the bending, compression, tension, shear and combined resistance of steel elements.

• Effects of bearing, transverse and longitudinal stiffeners are considered in the design of bridge girders using bridge design codes such as the CAN/CSA S6 standard.

• The program optimizes the section shapes to minimize the weight or the cost of the whole or a part of the structure. This optimization is performed based on the complete or customized list of standard section shapes or any user defined library of standard and parametric sections shapes.

• Geometrical limits can be defined to control the dimensions and properties of the section shapes selected by the optimization engine.

• The optimization engine can check various deflection criterions during the section selection process.

## DESIGN IN COLD-FORMED STEEL

**CSA S136-16**), the United States and Mexico (

**AISI S100-16**). Cold-formed steel sections can be mixed with regular steel shapes in a model allowing to design hybrid structures.

Supported section shapes:

•60° and 90° angles and 90° angles with lips

•Channel with or without lips

•Z sections with or without lips

•U (Hat) sections

Performed design checks:

•Tension resistance (Chapter D)

•Compression resistance including distortional buckling (Chapter E)

•Bending resistance including distortional buckling (Chapter F)

•Shear resistance (Chapter G)

•Combined forces (Chapter H)

•Web yielding and web crippling at supports (Chapter G)

•Standard CISC, AISC or European sections or parametric section shapes (over 25 shapes available).

•All parameters required to calculate the resistance of the elements such as unbraced length, buckling lengths, buckling factors and others can be customized either graphically or from spreadsheets.

•Latest revisions of CAN/CSA S16 and S6, AISC ASD and LRFD, Eurocode 3 and 4 standards and Indian IS 800-2017.

•Singly symmetric, asymmetric and built-up section shapes are covered for all design codes.

•Limit states design of the optimized structure are presented in colors.

•Calculation of the bending, compression, tension, shear and combined resistance of steel and composite elements based on the results of a linear, P Delta, non-linear, seismic, dynamic or moving load analysis.

•The design of composite beams accounts for long term deflections, partial composite action, plain slab or slab cast on standard or user defined steel decks and user defined studs.

•The slab reinforcement can be considered in the calculation of the elements resistance.

•It is possible to consider the analysis of composite beams with the full composite inertia or the effective inertia in positive moment regions or the steel beam inertia in negative moment regions.

•Complete check of deflection according to a comprehensive set of criterions.

### STEEL

VERIFICATION

The SAFI STEEL CALCULATOR™ allows to quickly verify, design and optimize steel beams and columns. It is also an efficient validation tool to verify design results of specific elements of complex models.

Design optimization and automatic section selection features make economic and quality steel structures a reality.

### ENGINEERING CALCULATORS

STEEL CALCULATOR™

## WOOD DESIGN

The wall surfaces creation is fast and user-friendly:

• Create rectangular walls in only two selections in a 3D environment.

• The wall surfaces can be rectangular or trapezoid.

• The wall surfaces can be copied to create the structure faces and the different stories of the structure.

Openings from the opening library can be added to the wall:

• The openings can be used for a series of walls.

• Window or Door opening types can be created.

• The lintel can be positioned directly above the opening or at the top of wall.

• The opening members can have their sections assigned according to these of the wall or can be selected manually.

### TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

The design sketch makes it easy to design the wall:

• When the wall is edited, the wall sketch highlights the treated elements in the wall.

• The wall sketch can be actualized when any parameter is modified.

• It is possible to measure distances directly on the wall sketch.

Parametric generation of the model:

• The wall generator creates the members and loading surfaces of the wall and assigns basic properties to these elements.

• Many different elements automatically generated: Members, Loading surfaces, General member attributes and Wood member attributes.

• All elements of the geometry can be generated at once.

• All wall elements can be edited by the user, which gives a good flexibility.

• The Sheathing parameters and the Anchorage configuration can be specified for each wall segment in order to calculate the shear resistance of the shearwall segments.

### TECHNICAL

SPECIFICATIONS

• Database of the common wood grades available on the market like dimension lumbers, glulam timbers, composite lumbers (LVL, PSL, LSL).

• Standard section library containing the common sizes available on the market as well as wood joists.

• Sections of special dimensions (6 1/4 x 11 3/8 for example) can also be defined and analysed.

• Many proprietary section libraries are also available: Nordic (NordicLam, Joists) Weyerhaeuser (Parallam, Microllam, TimberStrand, Joists) Boise (Versa-Lam, Joists)

• The specification of the material associated to a section is done in a parametric way. The material is selected automatically based on the specified section dimensions, the wood grade and the wood species.

• Calculation of the resistances and various design parameters for all elements of the model are made according to the CSA O86-15.

• Possibility of defining built-up wood sections. Sections built in vertical plies may be created from any rectangular wood section. The type of anchorage is accounted for in the resistance calculation Modification coefficients (KS, KT and KH) are determined automatically based on a small number of parameters. The size coefficients (KZ) are calculated automatically according to the section sizes. All modification coefficients (KS, KT, KH and KZ) may be customized for each type of resistance calculated (KSb, KSv, KSc…). The load duration coefficient (KD) is determined automatically for each load combination and is applied to the calculation of the wood element resistances.

• The support parameters used in the shear and bearing resistance (compression perpendicular to grain) can be specified. These parameters can be different for the two ends of the members.

• Specific parameters related to the bending, compression and tension resistance may be specified. -Several of these factors may be determined automatically using the Recalculate command.

• Calculations of bending, compression, tension, shear, bearing and combined resistance of aluminium elements based on the results of a linear, P-Delta, non-linear, seismic or dynamic.

• Calculation of structural elements like beams, simple or built-up columns, inclined roof purlins, straps, decking, various arcs (circular, parabolic, Tudor, triangular, broken arcs).

• Beams and arcs may be straight or curved with a constant or variable section. For curved elements, tension perpendicular to grain needs to be verified manually.

• The Re-Design command allows to run a partial analysis on selected members. It is possible to modify the section of the members or the material type and properties. The chosen section may then be assigned to the selected members of the model.

• Calculates the ultimate limit states, service limit states and vibration control of wood joists based on the CCMC 1997 report.

• Roofs and floors made of plywood or OSB panels as defined in chapter 9 of CSA O86-14 can be calculated.

• Calculation of wood trusses with metallic connections according to the TPIC.

• Deflections are checked according to a comprehensive set of criterion.

• All intermediate results required for validation are provided.

### TECHNICAL

SPECIFICATIONS

### SHEARWALLS

The bearing walls and shearwalls creation is possible with the wall generation tools of the Light Wood Structures module of the GSE WOOD. These tools allow to create wall surfaces then define their parameters and to generate the geometrical elements of the walls.

The 3D wood structure is submitted to the applicable loads, including wind and seismic loads, in order to carry out a complete analysis of the structure according to the National Building code (NBCC 2005, 2010). The seismic analysis is done according to the clause 4.1.8 of the NBCC and the wind analysis is done according to the clause 4.1.7 of the NBCC.

Attributes specific to Walls:

•The walls can either be Bearing Walls or Shearwalls. The Bearing walls are an assembly of standard wood members.

The Shearwalls include the same wood members and integrate a lateral load resistance which comes from the sheathing and the anchorages.

• Each type of element in the wall is made of a simple or built-up wood section chosen by the user.

• The studs are automatically positioned in the wall according to the selected spacing.

• The wall surfaces can be copied to create the structure faces and the different stories of the structure.

• The walls can either be bearing walls or shearwalls.

• Each type of element in the wall is made of a simple or built-up wood section chosen by the user.

• When the wall is edited, the wall sketch highlights the treated elements in the wall.

• The wall sketch can be actualized when any parameter is modified.

• Window or door openings can be created and stored in a library.

• The lintel can be positioned directly above the opening or at the top of wall.

• The members of the openings can have their sections assigned according to the sections of the wall or can be selected manually.

• The sheathing parameters and the anchorage configuration can be specified for each wall segment in order to calculate the shear resistance of the shearwall segments.

• The wall generator creates the members and loading surfaces of the wall and assigns basic properties to these elements.

• All elements of the geometry can be generated at once.

• All wall elements can be edited by the user, which gives a great flexibility.

• Detailed results for each shear-wall segment, including the forces in anchorages (Rij) and the shear forces (Vf).

• The shear forces on each segment are calculated according to two methods: Shear force distribution based on the stiffness of the shearwall segments and shear force distribution based on the shear resistance of the segments.

• Design of floor diaphragms.

### LIGHT FRAMED

WOOD DESIGN

### ENGINEERED

WOOD

This module allows to calculate the resistance and the limit states of wood members of a model according to the CSA O86-15 design code. The limit states verified are: compression, tension, bending, compression bending, tension-bending, shear, bearing, deflections and slenderness.

The wood sections verified by the program may be sawn lumber, glued-laminated timbers and structural composite lumbers (LVL, PSL, LSL). The program provides a range of standard sections and allows to create custom wood sections and built-up wood sections. The user can also create its own custom section libraries. When possible, the program can automatically select the appropriate wood grade based on the section parameters (dimensions, wood class, etc.)

• Analysis results of the shearwalls are given in a table.

• Detailed results for each shearwall segment, including the forces in anchorages (Rij) and the shear forces (Vf).

• The shear forces on each segment are calculated according to two methods: Shear force distribution based on the stiffness of the shearwall segments and shear force distribution based on the shear resistance of the segments.

### VERIFICATION

FEATURES

## ALUMINUM DESIGN

The unmatched graphical user interface of the GSE software allows to create, analyze and design large and complex models quickly and easily. The program designs or verifies the whole or a part of a structure according to the Canadian CAN/CSA S157-05 design code using standard sections or parametric section shapes (over 30 shapes available).

The GSE ALUMINUM allows to verify aluminum members with standard sections and non-standard sections. The program is made to let the user retain full control over the design process.

All parameters required to calculate the resistance of the elements such as unbraced lengths, buckling lengths, buckling factors, end welding, in span welding, slenderness limit, and others. They can be customized either graphically or from spreadsheets.

### ALUMINUM VERIFICATION

•Aluminum design codes

• Member Attributes – Aluminum

• Bending Parameters

• Compression and Tension parameters

• Welds parameters

• Recalculate

• Redesign selected members

• Design summary

### COMPRESSION

The torsional buckling stress is calculated using the method presented in clause 13.3.2 of the CAN/CSA S16 code from where the equations of clauses 9.4.3.2 and 9.4.3.3 of the CAN/CSA-S157 code are taken (see commentary C9.4.3.3).

The compressive resistance of a built-up section is calculated according to clause 9.8.2.

The lateral torsional buckling resistance is calculated using the general lateral torsional buckling equation. The equation presented in clause 9.5.3.2 is a simplification of this general equation.

### BENDING

### WELDS

In the case of full welds, R Ag, R Ix and R Iy are not used.

In the case of partial welds, ratios must be specified.