**OVERHEAD SIGN STRUCTURES**

ANALYSIS
AND DESIGN

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The HSE HIGHWAY SIGN STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING Software is an automated Highway Sign Structures generation analysis and design program for latticed Highway Sign Structures, Overhead Sign Structures, Gantry structures, Cantilevers, Traffic Signals and Luminaire Support Structures.

The HSE software is a high-end parametric technology for the generation and design of various Sign Structures. It offers powerful and productive features for generating many types of latticed structural models and automated tools for determining wind and ice loads as well as any relevant design parameters such as slenderness ratios and force coefficients.

This engineering software solution is used worldwide by several notable international companies in production work for building innovative sign structures. The HSE is a robust and reliable structural software based on more than 34 years of Research and Development. The program, designed with the latest technological innovations in its field, is equipped with a sophisticated and user friendly graphical interface.

The HSE software is a high-end parametric technology for the generation and design of various Sign Structures. It offers powerful and productive features for generating many types of latticed structural models and automated tools for determining wind and ice loads as well as any relevant design parameters such as slenderness ratios and force coefficients.

This engineering software solution is used worldwide by several notable international companies in production work for building innovative sign structures. The HSE is a robust and reliable structural software based on more than 34 years of Research and Development. The program, designed with the latest technological innovations in its field, is equipped with a sophisticated and user friendly graphical interface.

The HSE program can calculate the resistance and various design parameters of all elements of a Highway Sign Structures model according to the Canadian, American and European Steel codes.

The program supports the required specifications of the**AASHTO LTS-13 ASD (6th edition)**, **AASHTO LTS-15 LRFD (1st edition)** and **AISC 360-10 LRFD**. The program supports the **American Aluminum AA ADM-2015 (LRFD)** and **Aluminum AA ADM-2015 (ASD)** for general structures and the Canadian aluminum codes **CAN/CSA-S157**.

The HIGHWAY SIGN ENGINEERING program supports ice loads, wind loads which can be defined according to various distribution methods ranging from uniform distribution and user defined distributions to sophisticated methods as the one proposed in the IEC-826 document. The ice loads and wind loads are automatically distributed to the latticed structure and to the sign panels.

The program supports the required specifications of the

The HIGHWAY SIGN ENGINEERING program supports ice loads, wind loads which can be defined according to various distribution methods ranging from uniform distribution and user defined distributions to sophisticated methods as the one proposed in the IEC-826 document. The ice loads and wind loads are automatically distributed to the latticed structure and to the sign panels.

Request a free online webinar featuring the capabilities of the HSE Highway Sign Advanced Analysis and Design software.

TODAY'S HIGHLIGHTED **FEATURE**

**FATIGUE** LIMIT STATE

A step has been added into the highway sign wizard so all fatigue parameters for the structure can be set here. The CAFT (Constant Amplitude Fatigue Threshold) or (DF)TH for infinite life for the different fatigue detail categories are found in AASHTO LTS-13 (ASD) Table 11.9.3.1-1 and AASHTO LTS-15 (LRFD) Table 11.9.3.1-1.

Automated simplified method of the building codes (NBCC and IBC)

Seismic response spectrum, seismic time-history and dynamic time-history analysis

Customized response spectrums and accelerograms

Fully customizable analysis parameters

Maximal response using CQC and SRSS methods

Automated or user defined damping

Graphical display of response spectrums and accelerograms

User defined incidence angle of seismic loads and vertical components

Customized analysis and output time steps

Time refined results can be provided for selected parts of the models

Automated or custom determination of the signs of deformations provided by the maximum response methods

Additional masses can be added to the model by way of static loads

Seismic loads (spectrum or accelerogram) and dynamic loads (sinusoidal, general load functions and random load functions)

Multiple seismic and dynamic loads can be combined together in a single analysis

Base shear calibration according to the selected building code

Possibility to define several seismic loads and account for eccentricities between the center of stiffness and the center of mass

Graphical display of the center of stiffness and the center of mass and seismic forces at floors

Account for accidental eccentricities

Account for the I, F and R coefficients of the NBCC and IBC code in spectral and time-history analysis

Seismic response spectrum, seismic time-history and dynamic time-history analysis

Customized response spectrums and accelerograms

Fully customizable analysis parameters

Maximal response using CQC and SRSS methods

Automated or user defined damping

Graphical display of response spectrums and accelerograms

User defined incidence angle of seismic loads and vertical components

Customized analysis and output time steps

Time refined results can be provided for selected parts of the models

Automated or custom determination of the signs of deformations provided by the maximum response methods

Additional masses can be added to the model by way of static loads

Seismic loads (spectrum or accelerogram) and dynamic loads (sinusoidal, general load functions and random load functions)

Multiple seismic and dynamic loads can be combined together in a single analysis

Base shear calibration according to the selected building code

Possibility to define several seismic loads and account for eccentricities between the center of stiffness and the center of mass

Graphical display of the center of stiffness and the center of mass and seismic forces at floors

Account for accidental eccentricities

Account for the I, F and R coefficients of the NBCC and IBC code in spectral and time-history analysis

The software allows the user to create load combinations.

A load combination results in an algebric combination of distinct basic loads.

Each basic load is multiplied by a load factor. The resulting load combination acts on the structure to generate a specific structural response.

The load combination wizard in the program also allows creating load patterns.

The load combination wizard generates load combinations according to NBCC, UBC, ASCE 7, BOCA, Eurocode and ECC.

Loading for joints, members including concentrated, uniform, trapezoidal and thermal loads.

Pressure or concentrated floor loads with two-way, one-way and truss distribution using triangular or quadrilateral surfaces.

Pressure or concentrated loads on finite element plates.

Gravity loads in any global direction calculated by the program.

Imposed displacements at any joint. User defined load combinations.

A load combination results in an algebric combination of distinct basic loads.

Each basic load is multiplied by a load factor. The resulting load combination acts on the structure to generate a specific structural response.

The load combination wizard in the program also allows creating load patterns.

The load combination wizard generates load combinations according to NBCC, UBC, ASCE 7, BOCA, Eurocode and ECC.

Loading for joints, members including concentrated, uniform, trapezoidal and thermal loads.

Pressure or concentrated floor loads with two-way, one-way and truss distribution using triangular or quadrilateral surfaces.

Pressure or concentrated loads on finite element plates.

Gravity loads in any global direction calculated by the program.

Imposed displacements at any joint. User defined load combinations.

FEA Finite Elements Analysis, Static Analysis, Linear and Nonlinear Analysis, P-Delta Analysis, Natural Frequency Analysis, Static Equivalent, Seismic and Dynamic Analysis, Time-History Analysis, Modal Analysis, Spatial Objects and Spatial Loads, Buckling Analysis, Spectral Analysis, Advanced Section Stress, Torsion and Warping, Built Up Sections, Catenary Cables, Diaphragm Analysis, Notional Horizontal Loads, Loads and Load Combinations.

Spatial objects are used to model non-structural secondary elements attached to the structure. These elements add no stiffness to the existing model. Loads applied to spatial objects are transferred to the structure through one or more attach joints. The loads are transferred using a “rigid plate” approach.

Concentrated, pressure and wind loads may be applied to spatial objects. The figures below shows a spatial object loaded vertically and horizontally attached to a cantilever column. Also, it shows the deformations and biaxial moments induced by the loads transferred by the spatial object.

The catenary cable element is a highly non-linear element used to model the catenary behavior of a cable suspended between two points under the effect of its self-weight. This formulation accounts for the non-linearity due to large displacements.

A cable has no bending, shear, compression or torsion stiffness. Due to this fact, the fixities at the ends are ignored; the cable is always treated as member acting in tension only. In the interface of the HSE, the user can create a catenary cable by associating a cable type section to a member.

Direct Analysis Method (DAM) available for AISC 360-16 and AISC 360-10 standards. The options for the Stability Design Method are Direct Analysis Method (DAM) and Effective Length Method (kL).

The HSE software considers restrained warping for the torsion of thin-wall open sections. Notice that this phenomenon is not included in most commonly used frame analysis programs. Almost all frame programs in practice use St-Venant torsion theory ignoring the effects of restrained warping.

The SAFI HSE software includes the fatigue limit states.

All fatigue parameters for the structure can be set into the highway sign wizard . The CAFT (Constant Amplitude Fatigue Threshold) or (DF)_{TH} for infinite life for the different fatigue detail categories are found in AASHTO LTS-13 (ASD) Table 11.9.3.1-1 and AASHTO LTS-15 (LRFD) Table 11.9.3.1-1.

The Highway Sign Wizard assigns these values when generating the model according to the input data. If the model has not been generated or after the model generation is done, the user can edit this table to change the fatigue parameters for the connection details for both ends of the member.

The Fatigue load combinations are required to compute the equivalent static forces and stresses range due to cyclic loading. The fatigue resistance is specified in AASHTO LTS-15 LRFD clause 11.9 and AASHTO LTS-13 ASD clause 11.9.

This main option activates the input required for fatigue verification. Depending on the type of structures, the fatigue verifications (Galloping, Natural Wind Gust, Truck-Induced Gust) may be activated or not. The user must check on the applicable fatigue loads according to its type of structure based on the requirements of the AASHTO LTS code.

The command Highway Sign Anchorages allows to define the input data for the anchorages.

The anchorage resistances and limit states are computed according to the following clauses according to the selected standard.

-AASHTO LTS-15 (LRFD) clause 5.16.3

-AASHTO LTS-13 (ASD) clauses 5.17.4.1 to 5.17.4.3

The fatigue verification for the anchorage rods is also computed according to the specified allowable stress range (DF)_{TH}.

The anchorage resistances and limit states are computed according to the following clauses according to the selected standard.

-AASHTO LTS-15 (LRFD) clause 5.16.3

-AASHTO LTS-13 (ASD) clauses 5.17.4.1 to 5.17.4.3

The fatigue verification for the anchorage rods is also computed according to the specified allowable stress range (DF)

Natural wind gust stresses result from the inherent variability in the direction and velocity of the wind induced airflow around the structure. Natural wind gusts are the most basic phenomena that may induce cyclic loads in lighting and traffic structures. It is generally applied to cantilevered and non-cantilevered overhead sign and overhead traffic signal supports.

Truck-induced gust loads are caused by the passage of trucks under traffic structures. These gusts of wind are caused by moving trucks and create both horizontal and vertical pressure on the structure. The vertical mast arm vibration results in the most critical stresses and therefore only the vertical pressures are evaluated. It is generally applied to cantilevered and non-cantilevered overhead sign and overhead traffic signal supports.

This wizard allows generating standard and nonstandard highway sign superstructures of type A1. The standard models are based on the typical plans of the Ministry of Transportation of Quebec. These standard structures are always assumed to be made of aluminum tubes.

The required steps for creating such structures are the following:

1 – Parameters

2 – Beam dimensions

3 – Column dimensions

4 – Beam panels

5 – Column panels

6 – Pedestals

7 – End

Local coordinate systems

Linear or circular lines of constructions for model creations

Automated commands for model creation such as move, rotate, extrude, copy, attach, subdivide and others

Models can be edited either graphically or by means of spreadsheets

Element can be created in batch or one by one

Elements of the models can be selected either graphically or according to a set of criterions

Persistent groups of selected objects can be created and edited graphically or by means of spreadsheets

Definition of physical members

Selection and edition of physical members

Definition of loading surfaces

Multiple edition grids with user defined spacing, angles and labels

Powerful edition and automatic generation tools

Members can be subdivided in any number of equal segments or at specific positions

Similar connected members can be merged together

Elements of the structure can be renumbered according to several criterions

Element attributes can be set graphically or by means of spreadsheets (sections, analysis parameters, rotation angles, etc.)

Element attributes can be edited in batch or element by element

Loads can be edited graphically or by means of spreadsheets

Contour lines for finite element plates with customized bounds

Wizard based geometry generation

A large number of pre-defined frames

Circular and parabolic arches

Cylinders and cones composed of beams and/or plates

Physical elements concept to group different elements

Surfaces can be used for load transfer and self-weight calculation

Surfaces can be used to simulate diaphragm effects

Wizard based geometry generation

Large number of pre-defined frames

Over 30 pre-defined trusses

Circular and parabolic arches

Cylinders and cones composed of beams and/or plates

Large number of pre-defined frames

Over 30 pre-defined trusses

Circular and parabolic arches

Cylinders and cones composed of beams and/or plates

Standard sections (CISC, AISC and European)

Custom section libraries

Non-standard sections (over 30 shapes available)

Truss and pre-tensioned cable sections

User defined section properties

Composite sections are available

The program manages to scale the size of the various pictures including toolbar buttons in order to make the user interface easy to use on every monitor, even on very high resolution monitors.

3D solid display of all section shapes

Ultra-fast 3D visualization in wire frame or solid modes

Customized display of all graphical objects.

Partial model visualization.

Results can be displayed on screen for the whole or a part of the structure.

Results can be displayed for each element separately by means of graphics and numerical results spreadsheets.

Results can be displayed for a set of elements by means of numerical results spreadsheets.

3D solid display of all section shapes

Ultra-fast 3D visualization in wire frame or solid modes

Customized display of all graphical objects.

Partial model visualization.

Results can be displayed on screen for the whole or a part of the structure.

Results can be displayed for each element separately by means of graphics and numerical results spreadsheets.

Results can be displayed for a set of elements by means of numerical results spreadsheets.

Metric, imperial and mixed units systems are allowed and can be modified at any time. Reports are printed according to any unit system.

Graphical display of seismic and dynamic analysis results

Model size limited only to the physical capacity of the computer.

Objects transparency for various components such as current selection, solid members, plates, surfaces, spatial objects, panels.

The level of transparency may be customized for each type of object from the Display Options command.

Functionalities of the HSE program allow to generate automatically detail elements in an automatically generated mesh perimeter.

These functionalities are specifically related to the refinement area, the opening, the linear constraint and the punctual constraint.

All detail elements added to the HSE model will be automatically connected to the finite element mesh.

The mesh perimeter will also connect any elements already in the model to the mesh perimeter automatically if they are in the plane of the mesh contour.

Results can be visualized either graphically or numerically.

Input data and results may be printed for the whole structure or partial structures using a graphical selection or a range of elements.

Customized list of input data and results to be printed.

Input data and results may be printed for the whole structure or partial structures using a graphical selection or a range of elements.

Customized list of input data and results to be printed.

Reports are available in several formats including SAFI™ reports, Microsoft Excel worksheets, Microsoft Access databases and ASCII text files.

All graphics can be printed or copied to the clipboard for use in external programs.

All graphics can be printed or copied to the clipboard for use in external programs.

IFC (INDUSTRY FOUNDATION CLASSES)

The integration of IFC in the GSE program enables importation of models from a large number of architectural and structural software.

IFC (Industry Foundation Classes) is an open and neutral data format allowing the definition of related classes to all construction objects. It is dedicated to the building sector and aims to software interoperability (all editors, all applications).

IFC is the most widely used protocol for information exchange and sharing between different platforms of BIM (Building Information Modeling).

The integration of IFC in the GSE program enables importation of models from a large number of architectural and structural software.

IFC (Industry Foundation Classes) is an open and neutral data format allowing the definition of related classes to all construction objects. It is dedicated to the building sector and aims to software interoperability (all editors, all applications).

IFC is the most widely used protocol for information exchange and sharing between different platforms of BIM (Building Information Modeling).

AutoCAD interface to import and export models by way of a DXF file.

The SDNF (Steel Detailing Neutral File) interface exports beams, columns and braces to SDNF compatible detailing software.

The KISS (Keep It Simple Steel) interface exports beams, columns and braces to KISS compatible estimation softwares.

IFC-Architecture interface for importing models from Revit or other IFC compliant programs.

If required, members subdivision and account for physical elements will be carried out automatically The solid view of the structure may also be exported when exporting to AutoCAD.

The SDNF (Steel Detailing Neutral File) interface exports beams, columns and braces to SDNF compatible detailing software.

The KISS (Keep It Simple Steel) interface exports beams, columns and braces to KISS compatible estimation softwares.

IFC-Architecture interface for importing models from Revit or other IFC compliant programs.

If required, members subdivision and account for physical elements will be carried out automatically The solid view of the structure may also be exported when exporting to AutoCAD.

The program calculates the bending, compression, tension, shear and combined resistance of aluminum based on the results of a linear, P-Delta, non-linear, seismic, dynamic or moving load analysis. Singly symmetric, asymmetric and built-up section shapes are covered for all design codes.

•Aluminum design codes

• Member Attributes – Aluminum

• Bending Parameters

• Compression and Tension parameters

• Welds parameters

• Recalculate

• Redesign selected members

• Design summary

The bending resistance (Mr) of a member is calculated according to clauses 9.5.2 (resistance of the cross section) and 9.5.3 (lateral torsional buckling). The slenderness of the plates is determined according to clauses 8.2.1, 8.2.2, 8.3.1, 8.3.2 and 10.2.1.

The lateral torsional buckling resistance is calculated using the general lateral torsional buckling equation. The equation presented in clause 9.5.3.2 is a simplification of this general equation.

The lateral torsional buckling resistance is calculated using the general lateral torsional buckling equation. The equation presented in clause 9.5.3.2 is a simplification of this general equation.

The compressive resistance (Cr) of a member is calculated according to clauses 9.4.1, 9.4.2 and 9.4.3. The slenderness of the plates is determined according to clauses 8.2.1, 8.2.2, 8.3.1, 8.3.2 and 10.2.1.

The torsional buckling stress is calculated using the method presented in clause 13.3.2 of the CAN/CSA S16 code from where the equations of clauses 9.4.3.2 and 9.4.3.3 of the CAN/CSA-S157 code are taken (see commentary C9.4.3.3).

The compressive resistance of a built-up section is calculated according to clause 9.8.2.

The torsional buckling stress is calculated using the method presented in clause 13.3.2 of the CAN/CSA S16 code from where the equations of clauses 9.4.3.2 and 9.4.3.3 of the CAN/CSA-S157 code are taken (see commentary C9.4.3.3).

The compressive resistance of a built-up section is calculated according to clause 9.8.2.

The welds have an important influence on the resistance of aluminum elements. The program distinguishes two types of welds which are end welds and in-span welds. Each of these types of welds may be full (affecting the entire cross section) or partial (affecting a portion of the cross section).

In the case of full welds, R Ag, R Ix and R Iy are not used.

In the case of partial welds, ratios must be specified.

In the case of full welds, R Ag, R Ix and R Iy are not used.

In the case of partial welds, ratios must be specified.

AASHTO LTS-13 (ASD) and AASHTO LTS-15 (LRFD) design standards. The AASHTO LTS-13 (ASD) and AASHTO LTS-15 (LRFD) (Standard Specifications for Structural Supports for Highway Signs, Luminaires, and Traffic Signals) steel design codes are implemented in SAFI HSE (Highway Sign Structures).

The AASHTO LTS-15 (LRFD) (Standard Specifications for Structural Supports for Highway Signs, Luminaires, and Traffic Signals) aluminum design code are implemented in SAFI HSE (Highway Sign Structures).

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